//
you're reading...

Biology

Sea of (Unromantic) Love: Strange Mating Behaviours

Tired of being alone on Valentine’s Day? Well, picture yourself in any of the following scenarios and well, maybe it’s for the best. Yesterday, we learned about how the male anglerfish becomes a parasite. Here are a few more unromantic, and downright strange examples of ocean animal reproduction (from the human perspective of course).

The “Shot in the dark”

Octo

The oceanic squid (Octopoteuthis deletron) is usually solitary and has been found off the coast of California in Monterey Submarine Canyon at depths of 400-800m. While deep-sea squids generally have highly developed eyes, at this depth, they cannot rely on sunlight to visually find each other. Male and female oceanic squids are a similar size and shape, so it’s hard to tell each other apart, and the males don’t even seem to bother trying. Males indiscriminately mate with females and males. How do we know? Equal proportions of both male and females have been found with sperm sacs implanted in similar (and multiple!) places on the body. Males use their penis equivalent (terminal organ) to transfer spermatophores which break out into smaller sperm sacs that implant into the tissue. Since some of these places are beyond the reach of the terminal organ, accidental self-implantation is ruled out. Perhaps even stranger is that these squids have the capacity to produce light on the tips of their arms and change colour via overlying chromatophores to communicate their sex, but they don’t. However, considering their short life span, and the fact that they usually have but one window of opportunity to reproduce before death, these guys follow a reproductive strategy that pays off when they take a shot in the dark.

The golden shower

Imagine you’re sitting at your doorstep, and you see a cute member of the opposite sex strolling by. Do you:

A: Wink at them

B: Introduce yourself

C: Urinate in their face

Watch out! This lobster thinks you're cute. (Credit: Derek Keats, flickr Creative Commons).

Watch out! This lobster thinks you’re cute. (Credit: Derek Keats, flickr Creative Commons).

In the lobster’s (Homarus americanus) case–yes the steamed ones you crack open and bathe in butter on the East coast of North America–the answer is C. This species of lobster along with some others have glands on their face that release urine. “Oh dear god, why?!” you ask? Lobster urine is a vehicle for pheromones (chemicals that work outside the body to evoke a reaction from members of the same species). Female lobsters are typically the ones on the prowl, scuttling around ocean avenues, searching for and visiting multiple dens occupied by male prospects. When she wants to engage, usually with a dominant male, she urinates out of her face to present her pheromones, and when the male gets the signal, he lets her into his den. The female then gets naked—no really—she moults to make relevant parts available. Then the male climbs onto her back, flips her over and internally deposits a capsule of sperm. Interestingly, the sperm capsule or spermatophore hardens into a plug to deter insemination from other males—although this does not stop the female from mating again. As a gentleman wouldn’t kick a naked lady out of his house, the male protects the female for a few days as her new exoskeleton hardens.  They part ways just in time for another female to pee at him. Females can keep sperm for over a year from multiple males. Then, although sperm is deposited internally, actual fertilization occurs externally when the eggs are laid. Side note: if you think no self-respecting mammal would use urine for courtship, consider the moose and their scent marking.

Crossing Swords

Sea slugs don’t have the same problems that the squids above do. Most are simultaneous hermaphrodites, meaning they have both male and female reproductive organs. As you might have guessed, sea slug sex is sloppy at best.  With both male and female reproductive parts, sometimes they undergo peaceful cross-fertilization, other times, it’s a “hit and run”.  Considering this free-for-all, one can safely assume, they have a few tricks up their penises and female reproductive organs:

The Head Stab: An unidentified sea slug in the genus Siphopteron has a two-pronged, extendable and flexible penis. One part is the penile bulb that goes nicely into the respective female openings and transfers sperm. The other part is a ‘stylet’ or spine that gets stabbed just above their mate’s eyes. The stylet delivers prostate fluid that may target the central nervous system in the hopes to stop their mate from digesting their sperm. Oh yeah, they can do that too.

Elysia timida, back-stabbing sea slugs (Credit: Parent Géry)

Elysia timida, back-stabbing sea slugs (Credit: Parent Géry)

The Tit for Tat Back Stab: Elysia timida are also simultaneous hermaphrodites but instead of stabbing each other in the head, they stab and inject each other (perhaps with sperm, but this has not been confirmed) repeatedly in the back.  To do so, they evert their penises located under their right eye and stretch it 1/3 third of their body to reach their partner’s back.  They alternate back stabbing with harmonized circling movements up to 34 times before a final sperm transfer into the female opening.  Elysia timida is exceedingly cooperative, usually reciprocating whatever actions their partner take.

 

Chromodoris reticulata - a sea slug with a disposable penis (Credit: prilfish, flickr Creative Commons)

Chromodoris reticulata – a sea slug with a disposable penis (Credit: prilfish, flickr Creative Commons)

The Disposable Penis: After Chromodoris reticulata copulates, they cast off their penises.  While amputating a penis may seem like the end of a lineage, their penises are actually longer than they look and are sectioned. C. reticulata has enough length for two backup penis sections coiled up inside and ready to go in 24 hours. Oh, and their penises have backward pointing spines which may act to remove sperm already stored in their mates.

And there you have it, just a small sampling of the weird and wonderful ways marine animals get down. Know of any other sea creatures that get down in a strange way? Let us know what we missed!

 

References:

Gosselin, T., Sainte-Marie, B., Bernatchez L., (2005). Geographic variation of multiple paternity in the American Lobster, Homarus americanus. Molecular Ecology. 14(5):1517-25. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2005.02498.x

Hoving, H., Bush, S., Robison, B., (2011). A shot in the dark: same-sex sexual behaviour in a deep-sea squid. Biology Letters., doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2011.0680

Lange, R., Werminghausen, J., Anthes, N,. (2013). Cephalo-traumatic secretion transfer in a hermaphrodite sea slug. Proceedings of the Royal Society. 281(1774). doi: 10.1098/rspb.2013.2424

Phillips, Bruce. Lobsters: Biology, Management, Aquaculture and Fisheries. John Wiley & Sons, 2008. Print.

Schmitt, V., Anthes, N., Michiels, N., (2007). Mating behaviour in the sea slug Elysia timida (Opisthobranch, Sacoglossa): hypodermic injection, sperm transfer and balanced reciprocity. Frontiers of Zoology. 4:17. doi:  10.1186/1742-9994-4-17

Sekizawa, A., Seki, S., Tokuzato, M., Shiga S., Nakashima, Y., (2013). Disposable penis and its replenishment in a simultaneous hermaphrodite. Biology Letters., 9(2). Doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2012.1150.

Discussion

Trackbacks/Pingbacks

  1. […] are pretty darn weird. This week we have already learned about parasitic males and some slightly unromantic mating strategies. We also learned that the movie “Finding Nemo” would be far different if screen writers […]

Post a Comment

Instagram

  • by oceanbites 2 months ago
    Happy Earth Day! Take some time today to do something for the planet and appreciate the ocean, which covers 71% of the Earth’s surface.  #EarthDay   #OceanAppreciation   #Oceanbites   #CoastalVibes   #CoastalRI 
  • by oceanbites 3 months ago
    Not all outdoor science is fieldwork. Some of the best days in the lab can be setting up experiments, especially when you get to do it outdoors. It’s an exciting mix of problem solving, precision, preparation, and teamwork. Here is
  • by oceanbites 4 months ago
    Being on a research cruise is a unique experience with the open water, 12-hour working shifts, and close quarters, but there are some familiar practices too. Here Diana is filtering seawater to gather chlorophyll for analysis, the same process on
  • by oceanbites 5 months ago
    This week for  #WriterWednesday  on  #oceanbites  we are featuring Hannah Collins  @hannahh_irene  Hannah works with marine suspension feeding bivalves and microplastics, investigating whether ingesting microplastics causes changes to the gut microbial community or gut tissues. She hopes to keep working
  • by oceanbites 5 months ago
    Leveling up - did you know that crabs have a larval phase? These are both porcelain crabs, but the one on the right is the earlier stage. It’s massive spine makes it both difficult to eat and quite conspicuous in
  • by oceanbites 5 months ago
    This week for  #WriterWednesday  on  #Oceanbites  we are featuring Cierra Braga. Cierra works ultraviolet c (UVC) to discover how this light can be used to combat biofouling, or the growth of living things, on the hulls of ships. Here, you
  • by oceanbites 5 months ago
    This week for  #WriterWednesday  at  #Oceanbites  we are featuring Elena Gadoutsis  @haysailor  These photos feature her “favorite marine research so far: From surveying tropical coral reefs, photographing dolphins and whales, and growing my own algae to expose it to different
  • by oceanbites 6 months ago
    This week for  #WriterWednesday  on Oceanbites we are featuring Eliza Oldach. According to Ellie, “I study coastal communities, and try to understand the policies and decisions and interactions and adaptations that communities use to navigate an ever-changing world. Most of
  • by oceanbites 6 months ago
    This week for  #WriterWednesday  at  #Oceanbites  we are featuring Jiwoon Park with a little photographic help from Ryan Tabata at the University of Hawaii. When asked about her research, Jiwoon wrote “Just like we need vitamins and minerals to stay
  • by oceanbites 7 months ago
    This week for  #WriterWednesday  on  #Oceanbites  we are featuring  @riley_henning  According to Riley, ”I am interested in studying small things that make a big impact in the ocean. Right now for my master's research at the University of San Diego,
  • by oceanbites 7 months ago
    This week for  #WriterWednesday  at  #Oceanbites  we are featuring Gabby Stedman. Gabby is interested in interested in understanding how many species of small-bodied animals there are in the deep-sea and where they live so we can better protect them from
  • by oceanbites 7 months ago
    This week for  #WriterWednesday  at  #Oceanbites  we are featuring Shawn Wang! Shawn is “an oceanographer that studies ocean conditions of the past. I use everything from microfossils to complex computer models to understand how climate has changed in the past
  • by oceanbites 7 months ago
    Today we are highlighting some of our awesome new authors for  #WriterWednesday  Today we have Daniel Speer! He says, “I am driven to investigate the interface of biology, chemistry, and physics, asking questions about how organisms or biological systems respond
  • by oceanbites 8 months ago
    Here at Oceanbites we love long-term datasets. So much happens in the ocean that sometimes it can be hard to tell if a trend is a part of a natural cycle or actually an anomaly, but as we gather more
  • by oceanbites 8 months ago
    Have you ever seen a lobster molt? Because lobsters have exoskeletons, every time they grow they have to climb out of their old shell, leaving them soft and vulnerable for a few days until their new shell hardens. Young, small
  • by oceanbites 9 months ago
    A lot of zooplankton are translucent, making it much easier to hide from predators. This juvenile mantis shrimp was almost impossible to spot floating in the water, but under a dissecting scope it’s features really come into view. See the
  • by oceanbites 9 months ago
    This is a clump of Dead Man’s Fingers, scientific name Codium fragile. It’s native to the Pacific Ocean and is invasive where I found it on the east coast of the US. It’s a bit velvety, and the coolest thing
  • by oceanbites 10 months ago
    You’ve probably heard of jellyfish, but have you heard of salps? These gelatinous sea creatures band together to form long chains, but they can also fall apart and will wash up onshore like tiny gemstones that squish. Have you seen
  • by oceanbites 11 months ago
    Check out what’s happening on a cool summer research cruise! On the  #neslter  summer transect cruise, we deployed a tow sled called the In Situ Icthyoplankton Imaging System. This can take pictures of gelatinous zooplankton (like jellyfish) that would be
  • by oceanbites 11 months ago
    Did you know horseshoe crabs have more than just two eyes? In these juveniles you can see another set in the middle of the shell. Check out our website to learn about some awesome horseshoe crab research.  #oceanbites   #plankton   #horseshoecrabs 
WP2Social Auto Publish Powered By : XYZScripts.com